Online dictionary of politics and media in France: Francois Bayrou,Jacques Chirac,Jean-Marie Le Pen,Le Figaro,Le Monde,Liberation,Nicolas Sarkozy,Segolene Royal

This is the online dictionary of France developed by Free Light Software. By clicking on a French word, you can find France related sites from French search engines. By clicking on a globe icon, you can display the locality on maps of France and Paris. By clicking on a thumbnail picture, you can enlarge it.
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Page beginning from the letter: F

Francois Bayrou

French words: François Bayrou
alternative words: Bayrou
keywords: statesman
related web sites: http://www.bayrou.fr
explanation: Born at Bordères near Lourdes in 1951 of a farmer's family, François Bayrou became a high school teacher after having studied French literature at Bordeaux university. In 1982, he was elected councilor of a French prefecture then congressman of National Assembly in 1986. He served as education minister in Édouard Balladur's cabinet then that of Alain Juppé between 1993 and 1997. He strongly opposed a merger of UDF and RPR to become UMP in 2002. He was positioned the 3rd in 2007 French presidency campaign.

Jacques Chirac

French words: Jacques Chirac
keywords: statesman
related web sites: http://www.museepresidentjchirac.fr
explanation: Born 1932 in Paris of a banker's family. After studied at Science Po and ENA, he became an assistant of Georges Pompidou. He won a seat of deputy in 1966 and entered Pompidou's cabinet as vice minister of social affairs then that of economy. Agriculture minister then Interior minister of Pierre Messmer's cabinet (1972-1974). He served as Prim Minister of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (1974-1976) and François Mitterand (1986-1988). Elected French president twice (1995 and 2002), he left the position in 2007.

Jean-Marie Le Pen

French words: Jean-Marie Le Pen
keywords: statesman
related web sites: http://www.lepen2007.fr
explanation: Born at La Trinité-sur-Mer in 1928 of a fisher's family, at 16, Jean-Marie Le Pen lost his father, killed by a German mine. Strong supporter of French Algeria when he was a law student, he won a deputy's seat in 1956. He founded his own party Front National in 1972 but it had remained marginal until 1980's when the immigration problem became critical. In 2002's presidential election, he was positioned the 2nd by beating Socialist's candidate, Lionel Jospin, but the result of 2007 campaign was disastrous.

Le Figaro

French words: Le Figaro
keywords: newspaper
related web sites: http://www.lefigaro.fr
explanation: One of the leading French daily newspapers founded in 1826 by Maurice Alhoy and Étienne Arago, as a satirical weekly, taking its name from "Marriage of Figaro". After many interruptions due to censures, the new owner, Hippolyte de Villemessant decided Le Figaro should appear daily. In 1897, Emile Zola was a contributor on Dreyfus's affairs. Le Figaro is now controlled by Serge Dassault, UMP's senator and the owner of Dassault Aviation. Mostly read by the conservative public, its circulation is about 320,000


Le Monde

French words: Le Monde
keywords: newspaper
related web sites: http://www.lemonde.fr
explanation: A leading French daily evening papers, founded in 1944 by Hubert Beuve-Méry as replacement of "Le Temps", accused of a collaboration with German occupation. For this reason, Le Monde used initially the same building and the layout as Le Temps. Due to a development of internet and free newspapers, Le Monde fell to financial difficulties and ceded a part of its shares to a French aeronautic tycoon, Lagardere. Mostly popular among the center-left public and over-sea readers, its circulation is about 460,000.

Liberation

French words: Libération
keywords: newspaper
related web sites: http://www.liberation.fr
explanation: One of the leading French daily newspapers, founded in 1973 by Jean-Paul Sartre, Benny Lévy and Serge July as the continuation of May 1968's student movement. For this reason, initially, all the employees had received the same salary. Thought it was the first French newspapers who owned an internet site, it was losing money because of its concurrence and Edouard de Rothschild entered in its capital in 2005 while Serge July left Liberation. Read mostly by leftist public, its circulation is about 185000.

Nicolas Sarkozy

French words: Nicolas Sarkozy
alternative words: Sarko
keywords: statesman
related web sites: http://www.sarkozy.fr
explanation: Born in 1955 in Paris to a Hungarian political refugee father and a Greek Jewish mother. In 1983, he was elected mayor of Neuilly sur Seine then congressman of National Assembly in 1988. He served as Budget Minister under Prime Minister Édouard Balladur (1993-1995). But when Balladur ran for French presidency, he became odd with Jacques Chirac and spent time in the wilderness. During Chirac's second presidency (2002-2007), he served as Interior Minister. He has become French president since May 6, 2007.

Segolene Royal

French words: Ségolène Royal
keywords: statesman
related web sites: http://www.desirsdavenir.org
explanation: Born in 1953 at Dakar in Senegal of a colonel's family, she sued his father at 19 because he refused to divorce her mother and finance girls' education. After having studied at Science Po in Paris, she was admitted in Ena then worked as an assistant of François Mitterrand. She won a seat of deputy in 1988 and entered Pierre Bérégovoy's cabinet as environment minister in 1992, then vice education minister and welfare minister in Lionel Jospin's one (1997-2002). She lost the presidential campaign of 2007.

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