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The dictionary of Japanese general terms is available at Online Japanese dictionary.
alternative words: Gohojo family, Go Hojo shi, Gohojo clan, Post Hojo family, Post Hojo clan
keywords: family, war lord
related topics: Hojo Soun , Hojoshi , Toyotomi Hideyoshi
related web sites: http://www2.harimaya.com/sengoku/html/hojo_k.html
explanation: An important warlord of Sengoku period in south Kanto region, founded by Hojo Soun. Parting from Izu province, they extended successfully their feud to a half of Kanto region thanks to a triple alliance with Imagawa and Takeda clans. They were eliminated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi after a long siege of Odawara castle in 1590. In order to distinguish this Hojo family from that of Kamakura period, the term "Go Hojoshi" (post Hojo clan) is used because there exists no lineage between them.
alternative words: Shogun's vassal, Shogun's retainer
related topics: Kamakura shogunate , Minamoto no Yoritomo , Shugo , Jito , Hatamoto , Edo shogunate , Koku
related web sites: http://www26.tok2.com/home/gokenin/
explanation: Direct shogun's retainers. At the beginning of Kamakura shogunate, about 2000 warriors were declared vassals of Minamoto no Yoritomo and became Gokenin. They were appointed to Shugo or Jito posts. In Edo shogunate, the title became more complex: Gokenin received the annual salary of less than 260 koku, Hatamoto up to 10,000 koku, and Daimyo beyond. There were about 18,000 Gokenin but their life was difficult due to the development of a money based economy.
alternative words: Gokishichido, Goki shichidou, Gokishichidou
keywords: law, state
related topics: Ritsuryo system , Kuni
explanation: Geographic division of Japan in Ritsuyo system. 5 kuni around the capital were grouped in Goki or 5 ki (ki means place directly administered by emperor) where the farmers were exempted from the tax in exchange with a labor force while the provinces were grouped in Shichido or 7 roads where relays along the main roads were installed to ease official travels. Goki were Yamato, Yamashiro, Settsu, Kochi and Izumi while Shichido were Hokuriku, Tosan, Tokai, Sanin, Sanyo, Nankai and Saikai.
alternative words: Vasilij Mikhajlovich Golovnin
keywords: famous person, foreigner, military man, northern territory, russia
related topics: Takadaya Kahee , Ezochi , Rezanov
related web sites: http://www.kufs.ac.jp/toshokan/50/goro.htm
explanation: Russian naval officer, born in 1776 in a noble family. As a retaliation against Rezanov's attacks on Japanese trading posts in Kuril and Sakhalin islands, he was captured during a survey work around Kunashir island in Kuril in 1811. In turn, Russians captured a Japanese merchant, Takadaya Kahee who was trading around Kuril islands. Finally both men were liberated in exchange. The book that Golovnin had written on his 3 year captivity in Japan became a best seller.
alternative words: Gorinno sho, Gorin no sho, book of 5 rings, book of five rings
related topics: Miyamoto Musashi
related web sites: http://home3.highway.ne.jp/horihome/gorin.html , http://www.webtsc.com/musashi/ , http://www.edp.eng.tamagawa.ac.jp/~sumioka/
explanation: Tactic book written by the famous swordsman, Miyamoto Musashi in 1643 at the age of 60 for his disciple, Terao Katsunobe. It is composed of 5 volumes: earth, water, fire, wind and void, that the Buddhists consider as the main components of the Universe. The book gave an information on the knowledge Musashi had acquired during his many mortal combats and his perception of the life. Recently the book has become very popular among businessmen thanks to rich didactic.
alternative words: Three successor houses, 3 successor houses, Vice shogun
keywords: family, title
related topics: Edo shogunate , Shogun , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Tokugawa Yoshinobu , Tokugawashi
explanation: 3 families issued from 3 young children of Tokugawa Ieyasu and allowed to succeed a shogun, if the latter dies without a male successor. They are: Kii domain in Wakayama prefecture, Owari domain in Aichi prefecture and Mito domain in Ibaraki prefecture. They had been also allowed to carry the name of Tokugawa, same as shogun himself and to give advices on the policy of shogunate.
alternative words: Matabei Goto
keywords: famous person, war lord
related topics: Kuroda Yoshitaka , Invasion of Korea , Battle of Sekigahara , Siege of Osaka castle
related web sites: http://www.mms-net.com/samurai/
explanation: Born in 1560 in a samurai family of south Hyogo prefecture. By following Kuroda Yoshitaka, Nagamasa father and son, he participated in Kyushu campaign, Korean invasion and Battle of Sekigahara. Thanks to his military exploits, he became a chief vassal of Nagamasa but soon lost his fief by felling in disgrace and wandered about. He was recruited by Toyotomi Hideyori for the siege of Osaka castle in 1614. He was killed in the battle field in 1615 during the summer campaign (Osaka Natsunojin).
alternative words: Shinpei Goto, Goto Shimpei, Shimpei Goto, Gotou Shinpei, Shinpei Gotou
keywords: northern territory, statesman
related topics: Itagaki Taisuke
related web sites: http://www.isop.ne.jp/atrui/mizu/goto.html
explanation: Born in 1857 in Iwate prefecture. First he studied medicine and became the director of Aichi medical school at the age of 25. By examining Itagaki Taisuke who had been attacked by a thug, he was appointed to the chief of medical bureau of interior ministry. Then he was appointed by Kodama Gentaro to the civilian governor of Taiwan. In 1906, he became the first president of Manchurian railroad then a foreign minister. He was elected mayor of Tokyo in 1920. He died in 1929.
Great Kanto earthquake
alternative words: Great earthquake of Kanto, Tokyo earthquake of 1923, Kantodaishinsai, Kanto daishinsai
keywords: event, korea
related topics: Taisho period
related web sites: http://www.japan-guide.com/a/earthquake/ , http://www.ynet.co.jp/touyoko/taisyo2.htm
explanation: The most devastating earthquake in modern Japan. It occurred on September 1st, 1923 in southern Kanto region with Sagami bay as epicenter and 100,000 people, many of them by a post quake fire, were killed. Its magnitude was about 7.9 in Japanese meteorology scale and 2 thirds of Tokyo's houses were demolished. All the transport and communication being cut off, the government ordered a martial law to halt the social unrest but many Koreans and anarchists were killed by rumors.
alternative words: Kwantung army, Kantogun, Kanto gun, Kantougun, Kantou gun
keywords: china, colony, office, weapon, world war 2
related topics: Guandong army , Manshukoku , Russo-Japanese war , Nomonhan incident
explanation: After Russo-Japanese war, Japan created an independent army group at Port Arthur in 1919 to protect Liaodong peninsula and south Manchurian railroad. After Manchurian incident in 1931, it conquered all the Manchuria and strove to protect Japanese interests by provoking Nomonhan incident. During the world war II, the best units were sent to Pacific front to fight against Americans so when Soviets entered the war on August 8, 1945, they collapsed without resistance.
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