Online dictionary of history and traditions in Japan: Hagakure,Hagoita,Haiku,Hakama,Hakodate bugyo,Hakuho period,Hamagurigomon incident,Han,Hanafuda,Hanamatsuri

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Page beginning from the letter: # A A B B B C D E E E F G G G H H H H H I I J J K K K K K K K L M M M M N N N O O O P R R S S S S S S S S T T T T T U W Y Y Z

Hagakure

hagakure hagakurekikigaki hagakureronngo nabeshimaronngo
alternative words: Hagakure kikigaki, Hagakure rongo, Nabeshima rongo, Way of samurai
keywords: book, philosophy
related topics: Edo period , Samurai , Bushido
related web sites: http://www.fsinet.or.jp/~yukio/rekishi/reindex.htm
explanation: Book written by Tashiro Tsuramoto, a samurai of Saga domain in north Kyushu, from the speech of Yamamoto Tsunetomo, a retired samurai. Containing 11 volumes, it was completed in 1716. It resumes, through 1300 short anecdotes, the daily mental attitude that samurai of Saga should have. The famous expression, "Bushido (samurai's way) is a way of dying" is on this book.

Hagoita

hagoita
alternative words: Hanetsuki paddle, Battledore paddle
keywords: art, craft, game, thing
related topics: New year , Hanetsuki
related web sites: http://www.tim.hi-ho.ne.jp/~m-ando/hagoita.htm , http://www4.big.or.jp/~kna/kna/hagoita1.html , http://www1.plala.or.jp/harasimahagoita/
explanation: Wooden paddle used for hanetsuki game. A simple paddle with picture drawn behind is used in a real game but there exists "hagoita" used as a new year gift for girls. The size is a little bigger and cloth made picture of kabuki actors or girls (now also with plastic) are attached in relief on the surface. Each December, all over Japan, hagoita markets (hogoita ichi) are open for the preparation of a new year. The market near Asakusa temple in Tokyo is notorious.

Haiku

haiku
alternative words: Haikai, Haiku poem
keywords: poesy
related topics: Edo period , Matsuo Basho
related web sites: http://www.ese.yamanashi.ac.jp/~itoyo/basho/basho.htm , http://www.kcn.ne.jp/~nanto/saijiki0.htm , http://www.nhk.or.jp/zk/index.htm
explanation: Originated from the first verse of "renka", i.e. 7-5-7 syllables, it took the actual form by the work of a famous poet of the early Edo period, Matsuo Basho (1644-94). The particularity of this verse is besides its extreme short form, you should insert a word which evokes a season "kigo". Because of its simplicity, it is by far the most popular poesy form in Japan as well as abroad.

Hakama

hakama
alternative words: Kimono trousers, Japanese trousers
keywords: craft
related topics: Kimono , Kofun period , Haniwa , Heian period , Meiji period , Samurai
related web sites: http://azusa.miko.org/~tatyana/event/hakama/hakama.html , http://www.j-avenue.com/sukeroku/hakama.htm
explanation: As attested by Haniwa doll of Kofun period, origin of hakama (Japanese trousers) was very old. Under an influence of the Chinese civilization, the usage of hakama had declined during Heian period and replaced by kimono with a long skirt, especially among women. When samurai clans took the power in the middle ages, the usage of hakama became again popular among men. Hakama for women resurfaced during Meiji period as a girl's school uniform.


Hakodate bugyo

hakodatebugyou
keywords: northern territory, office
related topics: Edo shogunate , Bugyo , Ezochi , Matsumae domain
explanation: Matsumae domain owing a small number of soldiers (samurai), they were unable to stop Russian incursions. For that reason, Edo shogunate put the eastern part of Hokkaido and Kuril islands, i.e. Eastern Ezochi under its direct administration in 1802. The administration office had been at Hakodate in the south of Hokkaido until 1807 when it was replaced by Matsumae Bugyo which came to control all the Matsumae domain.

Hakuho period

hakuhoujidai hakuhou
alternative words: Hakuho era, Hakuho jidai, Hakuhojidai, Hakuho, Hakuhou
keywords: epoch
related topics: Asuka period , Taika reform , Emperor Tenchi , Emperor Tenmu , Ritsuryo system
related web sites: http://www.hikyaku.com/gallery/english/yakusji.html , http://www.hikyaku.com/gallery/english/asuka.html
explanation: A part of Asuka period spreading from Taika reform in 645 until a transfer of the capital to Nara in 710. Under the guidance of Emperor Tenchi, Japan received a centralized political system (Ritsuryo regime) and Emperor Tenmu and his wife, Empress Jito continued that policy with an appearance of the first Japanese fixed capital, Fujiwarakyo in the model of Chinese Tang dynasty. The influence of Tang dynasty was also manifest in Buddhist architecture such as Yakushiji temple.

Hamagurigomon incident

hamagurigomonnnohenn kinnmonnnohenn
alternative words: Hamagurigomon no hen, Kinmon no hen, Hamagurigomonnohen, Kinmonnohen
keywords: event, war
related topics: Choshu domain , Edo shogunate , Karo , Harakiri
related web sites: http://bakumatu.727.net/kyou/8/082064-kinmonnohen.htm , http://www.osk.3web.ne.jp/~wolfshan/kyosiseki/hamaguri.html
explanation: Chosu domain sent thousands of soldiers through sea and land to Kyoto to recovery the influence on the imperial court that they lost in 1863. The battle took place on July 19, 1864 around Hamagurigomon (the western gate imperial palace) between Choshu domain vs. Edo shogunate and its allies such as Aizu and Satsuma domains. The battle lasted only few hours but provoked a huge fire in Kyoto. Having lost the battle, Choshu domain asked a pardon by sentencing to death 3 Karo by harakiri.

Han

hann
alternative words: Fief, Feud, Domain
keywords: law
related topics: Edo period , Koku , Daimyo , Kuni , Shinpan , Tozama , Fudai
related web sites: http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~me4k-skri/
explanation: During Edo period, there existed about 300 seigniors of whom richness surpassed 10,000 koku (Daimyo). Their individual territories were called "han" and administered by their own laws. The system is comparable with Germany before its unification in 1871. Some seigniors were rich such as "Kaga han" which received 1 million koku and controlling the actual 2 prefectures, but most of them received less than 30,000 koku and their territories surpassed rarely one county.

Hanafuda

hanahuda
alternative words: Flower cards, Flower card, Hanafuda cards, Hanafuda card, Hanakaruta
keywords: game
related topics: Heian period
related web sites: http://www.nintendo.co.jp/n09/
explanation: Card game originated from Hanaawase of Heian period and thereafter influenced by the Western card game of the 16th century. Cards have motifs of seasonal flowers and animals and each month corresponds to 4 cards so the total number is 48. The game consists of collecting the cards according to certain combinations to make maximum of points.

Hanamatsuri

hanamatsuri hanamatsuri
alternative words: Hana matsuri
keywords: festival
related topics: Buddhism
explanation: Literal "flower festival", it designates any festival in spring when flowers flourish but the most famous is Sakyamuni Buddha's anniversary on 8 April. It is also called Kanbutsu-e or Goutan-e. It consists to settle a statue of baby Buddha in flowered altar and to pour amacha (sweet tea) on his head.

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