Online dictionary of history and traditions in Japan: Jinshin war,Jito,Jizo,Jodo sect,Jodo shin sect,Jokou,Jomon period,Judo

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Jinshin war

jinnshinnnorann
alternative words: Jinshin disturbance, Jinshin no ran, Jinshinno ran
keywords: event, war
related topics: Asuka period , Emperor Tenchi , Emperor Tenmu
related web sites: http://www.page.sannet.ne.jp/gutoku2/jinsinnnoran.html
explanation: The biggest civil war of Asuka period. Understood that Emperor Tenchi wished to give the throne to his son prince Otomo, the brother of Tenchi, prince Oama, hid in Yoshino mountains, excusing that he wishes to master Taoism. After the death of Tenchi, Oama fled to the eastern Japan to gather his partisans then attacked the army of Otomo. After fierce battles which lasted 1 month, Oama eliminated Otomo and became the 40th emperor (Emperor Tenmu), while Otomo committed suicide.

Jito

jitou jitoushiki
alternative words: Jitou, Jito shiki
keywords: title
related topics: Kamakura shogunate , Shoen , Minamoto no Yoritomo , Muromachi period
explanation: An administrator of manor (Shoen), this title had been officialized by Yoritomo and granted the right of tax collection and police over Shoen. Initially nominated only in the eastern Japan, the power base of Yoritomo, after Jokyu disturbance of 1221, Jito system was generalized in the western Japan, too. Because of repeated conflicts between Jito and Shoen's owners, some preferred to give up a half of their lands to be quiet (Shitaji Chubun), so Jito himself became a Shoen's owner.

Jizo

jizou jizoubosatsu
alternative words: Jizou, Jizo bosatsu
keywords: buddhism, god
related topics: Bosatsu , Kannon , Heian period , Buddhism
explanation: Between the death of the last Buddha (the historical Buddha Sakyamuni), and the birth of the next (Miroku) to come, Jizo remains on the earth to save the people. Usually he is represented by a monk who carries a stick on the left hand and a chaplet on the right. He had been introduced from China to Japan during Heian period. Later, he has been associated with local gods (Dososhin or Dosojin) to become a protector of the children. His Sanskrit name is Ksitigharbha (womb of earth).

Jodo sect

jyoudoshyuu
alternative words: Jodo shu, Jodo-shu, Jodoshu sect, Jodoshu, Pure land sect
keywords: buddhism, sect
related topics: Honen , Buddhism , Heian period , Kamakura period
related web sites: http://www.jodo.or.jp
explanation: Buddhism sect founded by Honen at the end of Heian period. Because of their missionary method, "direct preach on the street even for women", it provoked an anger of the established sects and many disciples and Honen himself were condemned and sent to exiles. Their doctrine consists to repeat the prayer "Namu amida butsu" i.e. "I take my refuge in the Buddha Amida". One of major disciples of Honen, Shinran preached it in the eastern Japan during exile and founded "Jodoshinshu sect".


Jodo shin sect

jyoudoshinnshyuu shinnshyuu ikkoushyuu
alternative words: Jodoshinshu sect, Jodoshinshu, Jodo shinshu, Jod shin shu, Shin sect, Shinshu, Ikko sect, Ikkoshu, True pure land sect
keywords: buddhism, sect
related topics: Shinran , Kamakura period , Muromachi period , Rennyo , Honen , Jodo sect , Buddhism
related web sites: http://www.hongwanji.or.jp
explanation: One of the new Buddhist sects created in Kamakura period. Its founder, Shinran never interested in creating a sect, his followers had been split into several groups and weaken. Much later, during Muromachi period, Rennyo, a descendant of Shinran, began to gather all these groups around Honganji temple, a mausoleum of Shinran, to create a powerful sect. Issued from Honen's Jodo sect, it gives more importance to the faith of each than simple prayers. It admits marriage of priests and meat eating.

Jokou

jyoukou
alternative words: Joukou, Retired emperor
keywords: emperor, title
related topics: Minamoto no Yoritomo , Kamakura shogunate , Insei , Emperor Gotoba
explanation: When state affairs became too complex, some emperors prefer to retire and act as tutor of an emperor at shadow. The first example of Jokou was Impress Jito who acted as tutor of Emperor Monmu. When Jokou became a priest, he was called "Hoou". The famous examples of Jokou or Hoou are Goshirakawa hoou who opposed to Minamoto no Yoritomo and Gotoba jokou who organized Shoku rebellion against Kamakura shogunate. The politics carried out by Jokou or Hoou were called Insei.

Jomon period

jyoumonnjidai jyoumonn
alternative words: Jomon era, Jomonjidai, Jomon jidai, Joumon period, Joumon jidai, Joumonjidai, Jomon, Joumon
keywords: epoch
related topics: Ezo , Yayoi period
related web sites: http://www.wnn.or.jp/wnn-history/index1.html , http://www.jomon.ne.jp/~kegani/ , http://www.hikyaku.com/gallery/english/sannai.html
explanation: Jomon era, running from 12,000 BC to 300 BC, was characterized by somewhat milder climate and intensive volcanic activities in Kyushu island. For that reason, the center of civilization was located in north-eastern Japan. The recent DNA test has revealed that the population of Jomon was composed essentially with Ainu, now confined into Hakkaido. The characteristic remains of Jomon are small ceramic statues (Dogu), and bases with rope traces from which Jomon name originated.

Judo

jyuudou yawara jyuujitsu
alternative words: Judou, Yawara, Jujitsu, Jujutsu
keywords: martial art
related topics: Tatami , Aikido
related web sites: http://www.judo-jp.org , http://www.kodokan.org/index_j.html , http://www.judo.or.jp , http://judoweb.net , http://www.yamashitayasuhiro.com
explanation: In ancient Japan, there existed a technique to fight without weapon. It was called Yawara (suppleness) or Jujitsu (art of suppleness). In 1882, Kano Jigoro adapted it to a sport for a youth's education. Since Olympic games of Tokyo in 1964, it has become an official discipline. The combat takes place on a square of 9.1m side covered with tatami mats and the goal is to throw away the adversary (nage waza) or grapple him (katame waza). Kodokan is the central organization of this sport.

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