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The dictionary of Japanese general terms is available at Online Japanese dictionary.
related topics: Edo shogunate , Daimyo
explanation: Literally "substitute official", they were sent by Daimyo to administer their fiefs and collect tax in feudal Japan but generally, man refers to daikan of Edo shogunate due to the vastness of lands to administer (one quarter of Japan): they had a huge responsibility and frequently accused of corruption. They depended on Kanjo bugyo (finance minister) and their lands were called "tenryo" (celestial feud). Edo shogunate had 37 daikan at the end of its reign.
alternative words: Daikokuten, Daikoku ten, Daikukusama, Daikoku sama
related topics: Heian period , Muromachi period , Saicho , Okuninushi , 7 fortune gods
related web sites: http://www.butsuzou.com/daikoku1.html
explanation: Originated from an Indian god of obscurity and wars, Mahakala or Mahakara, he was introduced to Japan by the priest Saicho. During Heian period, he transformed to a god of kitchen and also became synonymous to "priest's wife". During Muromachi period, he was confounded with the shinto god, Okuninushi due to the same Onyomi reading and has become a god of wealth among 7 fortune gods. He is represented by a fat man carrying a huge bag and a miracle wooden hammer (Uchidenokozuchi).
alternative words: Kodayu Daikokuya, Daikokuya Koudayuu, Kodayu
keywords: famous person, northern territory, russia
related topics: Laxman , Ezochi , Sakoku
related web sites: http://www.iijnet.or.jp/daikokuya/kyoudo/main.html , http://www.suzuka-ct.ac.jp/genl/fl/tsuzuki/koudayu/kou-sirizu/ko-siri-6-tsuzuki.htm , http://www.pcs.ne.jp/~sakura/kodayu.html
explanation: Born in 1751 in Mie prefecture. During a course to bring rice to Tokyo as captain, his ship encountered a storm and wrecked to Aleut islands in 1782. After 4 year stay on an island, he reached finally Russian mainland and met Empress Catherine II. She decided to return him back to Japan, accompanied by Laxman. They arrived in 1792 at Nemuro. Due to Sakoku, he was asked not to tell his travel and spent the remaining life in an official district of Tokyo. He married there and died in 1828.
alternative words: Daimyou, Japanese seignior, Japanese lord, Feudal lord
keywords: title, war lord
related topics: Edo period , Edo shogunate , Battle of Sekigahara , Sankinkotai , Koku , Fudai , Tozama , Shugo daimyo
related web sites: http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~me4k-skri/
explanation: During Edo period, It designated the seignior who owned the lands of which total rice production surpassed 10,000 koku (1 koku is about 180 liters of rice grains). Their existed about 300 daimyo and the biggest was 1,200,000 koku of Kaga domain but the most of daimyo owned only between 10,000 and 30,000 koku. They were classed to 3 categories: "shinpan" are relatives of shogun, "fudai" were already allied before the battle of Sekigahara and "tozama" are someone else.
alternative words: Darma, Bodhidharma, Daruma doll
keywords: buddhism, china, craft
related topics: Zen , Buddhism
related web sites: http://www.amie.or.jp/daruma/ , http://www.daruma.or.jp
explanation: Indian Buddhist priest, born in circa 470. He came to China to teach Zen doctrine but little is known about his real life. In Japan, he is popular through a doll showing his meditation posture in a red robe. Daruma doll of cocoon form appeared during Edo period at Takasaki city in Gunma prefecture to pray for a healthy growth of silk worms. Now people set it before any challenge such as an election by drawing one eye and will complete the eye when it becomes successful.
alternative words: Masamune Date, Masamune
keywords: famous person, war lord
related topics: Sengoku period , Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Hasekura Tsunenaga
related web sites: http://hb2.seikyou.ne.jp/home/fm/
explanation: Born in 1567 in Yonezawa as son of a war lord, Date Terumune. He extended his fief by beating Ashina and Satake clans, but by surrendering to Toyotomi Hideyoshi who came to Odawara's siege, his fief shrunk again to the initial Yonezawa region. By allying with Tokugawa Ieyasu during the battle of Sekigahara, he got the fief of Sendai region. In 1613, he sent a delegation led by Hasekura Tsunenaga to Pope. Having lost one eye, he was nicknamed Dokuganryu (one eyed dragon). He died in 1636.
alternative words: Dazai-fu, Dazai fu
related topics: Asuka period , Rebellion of Fujiwara no Hirotsugu , Heian period , Tenjin , Kamakura period , Invasion of Mongols
related web sites: http://www.dazaifutenmangu.or.jp , http://www.city.dazaifu.fukuoka.jp
explanation: After the political center of Japan moved to Kinki, Kyushu still remained important due to its proximity to the continent. For that reason, a special place, Dazaifu, for the administration of the whole Kyushu and an entrance of foreigners was created in 7th century. Its director, "Dazai no sotsu" had a rank of minister. Though since Heian period, he stayed in Kyoto and sent his aid, "Shoni" instead, Dazaifu remained important: Mongols tried in vain to conquer it during Kamakura period.
alternative words: Deshima, Dejima island
related topics: Edo period , Sakoku
related web sites: http://www1.city.nagasaki.nagasaki.jp/dejima/
explanation: Small artificial island built inside Nagasaki harbor in 1634. Initially served as the trading post of Portuguese merchants, after their expulsion from Japan, Dutch merchants were moved there from Hirato harbor in 1641. During Sakoku period which spanned between 1639 and 1853, it had been the unique place where western merchants were allowed to trade with Japanese. Dejima means "jutting island"
alternative words: Douyou, Douyo, Children's song
related web sites: http://www.doyo.co.jp , http://www.interq.or.jp/japan/k3j/ , http://www.town.otone.saitama.jp , http://www1.pref.tottori.jp/douyou/
explanation: In broader sense, it includes any songs for children. In narrow sense, it includes only high quality children's songs created during Taisho period by poets and novel writers such as Suzuki Miekichi, Kitahara Hakushu and Noguchi Ujo on a periodical, Akaitori (red birds). In this case, it excludes old country songs such as Warabeuta and school songs (Shoka).
Pocket Electronic Dictionary