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The dictionary of Japanese general terms is available at Online Japanese dictionary.
alternative words: Shingonshu sect, Shingonshu, Shingon-shu, Shingon shu, Shingon
keywords: buddhism, china, sect
related topics: Kukai , Buddhism , Esoteric Buddhism , Heian period , Kamakura period , Tendai sect
related web sites: http://www.shingon.or.jp
explanation: One of the esoteric Buddhism sects brought from China by Kukai in 806. He made it independent by founding Kongobuji temple in 816 at Mt Koya in Wakayama prefecture. As Tendai sect, it had been popular among Heian nobility but its influence declined after an emergence of new Buddhism orders in Kamakura period. During middle ages, because Dainichi (great sun) nyorai being the most important god for the sect, Amaerasu (sun godess) of shintoism was considered his avatar.
alternative words: Shi no ko sho, Shino kosho, Shinoukoushou, Shi nou kou shou, Warrior farmer artisan merchant
related topics: Kamakura period , Muromachi period , Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Edo shogunate , Daimyo
explanation: During the middle ages (Kamakura Muromachi periods), many farmers were part time warriors and it was a serious threat for established seigniors. Toyotomi Hideyoshi organized a separation among 4 categories of people (warrior farmer artisan and merchant) by confiscating sabers from farmers (Katanagari) and Edo shugunate completed it. But due to the development of a money base economy, daimyo became so poor that many wealthy farmers and merchants could buy warrior position (Shibun).
alternative words: Simpan
related topics: Edo shogunate , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Gosanke , Daimyo , Tozama , Han , Bakumatsu , Tokugawashi
explanation: During Edo period, daimyo descending from Tokugawa Ieyasu were called "shinpan", i.e. relative han (domain). They were Gosanke (3 successor houses, i.e. Ki, Owari and Mito domains), Echizen Matsudaira, Aizu Matsudaira and their sub-branches. They had been installed in different strategic places over Japan to watch Tozama daimyo and defend Edo shogunate but only Aizu domain defended actively shogunate in Bakumatsu period.
alternative words: Holly Shinran, Shinran shonin
keywords: buddhism, famous person, priest
related topics: Kamakura period , Jodo shin sect , Honen
related web sites: http://www.shinrankai.or.jp
explanation: Born in 1173 in a Kyoto's noble family. Became orphan very young, he entered Hiei monastery at the age 9 and climbed quickly the hierarchy. He became a disciple of Hounei in 1201 and suffered a persecution with him. He was condemned to exiles in Niigata prefecture and there married by transgressing a Buddhism discipline of the epoch. After a pardon, he remained in Eastern Japan and continued the missionary work among the people. He died in 1263 in Kyoto. Tannisho is an excerpt of his sermons.
alternative words: Shinsen gumi, Shinsen-gumi
keywords: meiji revolution, office
related topics: Bakumatsu , Meiji revolution , Edo shogunate
related web sites: http://www.toshizo.com , http://www.geocities.com/oozarumayo/shinsengumi.html , http://www.interq.or.jp/tokyo/toshizo/
explanation: In 1862, in order to assure the security of Kyoto city, Edo shogunate formed a special police force by recruiting among masterless samurai and farmers good in sword technique. Initially called Roshitai, after an internal conflict, Serizawa Kamo then Kondo Isami and Hijikata Toshizo took the control of group and the name changed to Shinsengumi. They provoked terrors among pro imperial samurai with Ikedaya incident in 1864. Shinsengumi disappeared with the defeat of Tokugawa regime in 1868.
alternative words: Shinto, Shintou
keywords: religion, shintoism
related topics: Yamato dynasty , Amaterasu , Buddhism , Nihonshoki , Kokugaku , Torii , Shimenawa , Jindai moji
related web sites: http://www.shinto.org , http://www.jinja.or.jp , http://www.kamnavi.net , http://www3.wind.ne.jp/~tnroom/
explanation: Indigenous religion based on a cult of the nature and great figures. Shintoists build no statues but only places to pray like in Islam or Judaism. There exist 2 groups of shintoism: the first, classic one, is tightly integrated into the state system built by Yamato dynasty. Ise-jingu which worships Amaterasu, is an example. The second category, "koshinto" i.e. old shinto, looks like an animism. During the Middle Ages, Shinto gods were frequently confounded with Buddhism (Honji suijaku theory).
alternative words: Shira nushi
keywords: locality, northern territory
related topics: Ezochi , Kushunkotan
explanation: Situated at the extreme south of Sakahlin island near cap Nishinotoro (cap Crillon) facing Soya strait (La P?use strait), Shiranushi had been the second trading post after Kushunkotan. When the latter closed at the end of summer, Japanese moved from Kushunkotan to Shiranush and remained there until the end September then left Sakhalin because the snow will begin to fall and all the activity cease in Sakhalin.
related topics: Noh , Noh mask
related web sites: http://web.kyoto-inet.or.jp/people/ijiri/
explanation: Shite is playing not only the main role in Noh drama but also directs it. Shite forms a school along with his auxiliaries such as tsure (companion), kogata (child actor) and hayashi (chorus), while the secondary role, waki, forms another school. Shite appears on the stage with a noh mask while tsure, not. There are 5 schools of shite (shitegata), i.e. Kanze, Hosho, Konparu, Kongo and Kita.
alternative words: Manor, Shouen
keywords: office, war lord
related topics: Taika reform , Ritsuryo system , Heian period , Samurai , Onin war , Jito
related web sites: http://www.tamagawa.ac.jp/sisetu/kyouken/kamakura/syouen/
explanation: After Taika reform, the private land ownership had been ban (Ritsuryo system) but it was gradually vacated under a pressure of powerful aristocrats and great temples: first, it was admitted to own new exploitation. Less powerful landowners contributed their lands to more powerful owners to get their aid while they recruited samurai to protect their lands. So at the end of Heian period, virtually all the Japanese lands had become Shoen (manors) and this situation continued until Onin war.
alternative words: Shougi, Shoogi, Japanese chess
related topics: Go
related web sites: http://www.shogi.or.jp , http://www.nsn.co.jp , http://www.geocities.co.jp/Playtown-Spade/4639/
explanation: A variant of western chess game and arrived to Japan during Nara period from China. Initially there had existed many rules and different kinds of chessboards but it took the actual form in the 16th century. The most significant difference compared to western chess game is that the player can use again the pieces taken from the adversary.
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