Online dictionary of history and traditions in Japan: Shakuhachi,Shamisen,Shichigosan,Shikken,Shimabara rebellion,Shimenawa,Shimoda treaty,Shimonoseki treaty,Shin kokinshu,Shindenzukuri

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Shakuhachi

shyakuhachi
alternative words: Bamboo flute, Japanese flute
keywords: music
related topics: Komuso
related web sites: http://www.shaku8.com/makeshaku8/
explanation: Flute made by bamboo. Having 4 holes on the front and one hole behind, the musician holds it vertically. In old times it had been used by itinerant monks. The name of Shakuhachi comes from its length, i.e. 1 feet and 8 inches.

Shamisen

shyamisenn
alternative words: Samisen
keywords: music
related web sites: http://tikuyu-shamisen.com , http://www.shamisenplayer.com
explanation: Music instrument imported from China via Okinawa. The body forms a kind of drum and the cat's skin is stretched over it while a rod of about 1m is attached perpendicularly on the side with 3 codes. It is played with a pick. The region where it is mostly played now is Tsugaru located in the west of Aomuri Prefecture.

Shichigosan

shichigosann
alternative words: Shichi go san, 7-5-3 year festival, seven-five-three year festival, 7-5-3 festival, seven-five-three festival
keywords: festival
related topics: Obi , Hakama
related web sites: http://www.hareginomarusho.co.jp/753/ , http://www.nifty.ne.jp/forum/fkimono/753/
explanation: Custom observed initially among aristocrats to celebrate the growth of their children. At the age 3, man stopped to cut off girl's hair (kamioki festival). At the age 5, boys began to ware "hakama" (hakamagi festival). At the age 7, girls began to use "obi" (obitoki festival). Initially the festival was observed individually but now on November 15 for everybody. People bring their children to a shrine by dressing them at the best and distribute chitoseame: a long candy stick and means 1000 year candy.

Shikken

shikkenn
alternative words: Hojo regency
keywords: shogun, title
related topics: Kamakura shogunate , Minamoto no Yoritomo , Hojoshi , Hojo Tokimune
explanation: Post created by Minamoto no Yoritomo of Kamakura shogunate as an attendant of Shogun in order to supervise military and judicial matters. Once the children of Yoritomo succeeded him, this post became another power pole of the shogunate and replaced the power of Shogun himself. This post was traditionally inherited by Hojo family because Yoritomo got married with a girl of this family, Hojo Masako. The post was suppressed with the fall of Kamakura shogunate in 1333.


Shimabara rebellion

shimabaranorann amakusanorann
alternative words: Amakusa rebellion, Shimabara uprising, Amakusa uprising, Shimabara riot, Amakusa riot
keywords: event, war
related topics: Daimyo , Edo shogunate , Roju
related web sites: http://www.ffortune.net/social/history/nihon-edo/simabara.htm
explanation: Daimyo, Matsukura Katsuie persecuted Christians while imposed a heavy tax. In December 1673, 37,000 peasants in Amakusa Shimabara region shut up themselves at Hara castle with Masuda Tokisada (Amakusa Shiro) as leader. Before a fierce resistance, leader of assailants, Itakura Shigemasa was killed. Edo shogunate then sent 120,000 men with Roju, Matsudaira Nobutsuna as leader. He used a starvation tactic and finally the castle felt April 1674, followed by a slaughter.

Shimenawa

shimenawa
alternative words: Shimenawa rope, Shime nawa, Sacred rope, Shinto rope
keywords: craft, shintoism, sumo, thing
related topics: Shintoism , Edo period , Yokozuna , Torii
related web sites: http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~auto/SIMENAWA.html
explanation: A rope made by twisting together straws. It is hung horizontally to indicate a sacred shintoism place such as praying hall or torii. Since Edo period, it has been also used as a belt of sumo champion, yokozuna during his presentation (yokozun means "horizontal rope"). The most of shrines hang "shimenawa" with its root (thick side) on the right but Izumo shrine observes the inverse. Until recently, it was made by farmers living in vicinity but it has become difficult to find volunteers.

Shimoda treaty

shimodajyouyaku
alternative words: Treaty of Shimoda, Russo-Japanese friendship treaty, Nichiro washin joyaku
keywords: northern territory, treaty
related topics: Putiatin , Edo shogunate , Kanagawa treaty , Bugyo , Sakhalin island
explanation: After Kanagawa treaty with USA in 1854, this one was concluded between Russian Admiral Putiatin and Japanese Kanjo bugyo, Kawaji Toshiakira at Shimoda city in February 1855. It stipulates that henceforth the frontier between 2 countries should pass Etorofu and Uruppu islands in Kuril while Sakhalin remains a common possession. Another provision of the treaty expects the opening of 3 harbors, Nagasaki, Shimoda and Hakodate, to supply waters and firewood to Russian ships.

Shimonoseki treaty

shimonosekijyouyaku
alternative words: Treaty of Shimonoseki
keywords: china, treaty
related topics: Sino-Japanese war , Mutsu Munemitsu
explanation: Treaty concluded between Japanese plenipotentiary, Mutsu Minemitsu and Chinese counter part Li Hung-chang at Shimonoseki city in 1895 after Sino-Japanese war. It stipulates that China should cede Taiwan and Liaotung peninsula to Japan, recognize the independence of Korea and pay a huge indemnity. Immediately after the signature, Japan had to give up Liaotung peninsula because of a diplomatic pressure from Russia, Germany and France (tripartite intervention).

Shin kokinshu

shinnkokinnwakashyuu shinnkokinnshyuu
alternative words: Shinkokinshu, Shin kokinwakashu, Shinkokinwakashu, Shin kokin wakashu
keywords: book, poesy
related topics: Kamakura period , Fujiwara no Sadaie , Waka , Kokinwakashu , Emperor Gotoba
related web sites: http://kotodama.kokugakuin.ac.jp/digital/diglib/skw1865/mag1/pages/page001.html , http://www.iwai-h.ed.jp/~teru/sinko/top.html , http://www07.u-page.so-net.ne.jp/df6/htac/body/koten/sinkokin.htm
explanation: Anthology of Japanese poems (waka) of early Kamakura period. Created by the order of a retired emperor, Gotoba in 1201, it was the last of 8 imperial poem anthologies (Chokusen wakashu). The compilers are: Minamoto no Michitomo, Fujiwara no Ariie, Fujiwara no Sadaie, Fujiwara no Ietaka, Asukai Masatsune, Jakuren. Composed of 20 volumes with 1980 poems, its style is based on a referencing of old poetry (Honka dori) and a subtle profundity (Yugen).

Shindenzukuri

shinndennZukuri
alternative words: Shinden zukuri, Shindenzukuri style
keywords: architecture
related topics: Heian period , Heiankyo
explanation: Residence of aristocrats in Heian period. It consists of the main building (shinden or master's sleeping quarters) at center and a pound on its south, where the boat playing was organized. Shinden is surrounded by servants and low ranking clerks' houses and forms a squared zone of 109m each side, fit to Heiankyo's district division. With a decline of the nobility at the end of Heiand period, shindenzukuri was replaced by shoinzukuri of samurai clans. Byodoin temple owns a typical shindenzukuri style.

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