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alternative words: Paekche kingdom, Kudara, Hyakusai
keywords: korea, state
related topics: Silla , Battle of Hakusukinoe , Emperor Kanmu , Empress Jingu
related web sites: http://www.coara.or.jp/~mieko/koreahistory/koreahistory6.htm
explanation: One of 3 Korean kingdoms which occupied the south west of Korean peninsula between 4th and 7th centuries. According to a legend, the people might originate from Fuyo, another Korean kingdom which preexisted in Manchuria. During fierce competitions between 3 kingdoms, Paekche had gradually lost territories in spite of a support of Japan and the capital fell in 660. During the last days, many aristocrats and intellectuals fled to Japan. Emperor Kanmu's mother stemmed from them.
alternative words: Treaty of Portsmouth, Nichiro kowa joyaku
keywords: northern territory, russia, treaty
related topics: Russo-Japanese war , Sakhalin island
related web sites: http://www.aba.ne.jp/~sugita/21j.htm
explanation: Treaty concluded between Japanese plenipotentiary, Komura Jutaro and Russian counter part Sergei Witte in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1905 after Russo-Japanese war. It stipulates that Russia should cede southern Sakhalin, Liaotung peninsula with port Arthur and southern Manchuria railroads to Japan, and recognize Japanese preponderance on Korea. Komura, unable to get an indemnity from Russia, it provoked a great number of manifestations all over Japan.
alternative words: Prince Shotokutaishi, Shotokutaishi, Shotoku taishi, Shoutokutaishi, Shoutoku taishi, Umayadonooji, Umayado no oji
keywords: china, famous person, statesman
related topics: Asuka period , Buddhism , Empress Suiko , 17 article constitution
related web sites: http://www4.justnet.ne.jp/~takeuchi_toshinori/tv_taisi.htm , http://www.tk.airnet.ne.jp/ponta/history/hist03.html , http://www.hikyaku.com/gallery/english/horyuji.htm
explanation: Born as a son of Emperor Yomei in 574, Prince Shotoku, sometimes called also Prince Umayado is the main politician of Asuka era. Once became the crown prince, he carried out a policy based upon Buddhism as the regent of Empress Suiko. In 604, he legislated the Constitution with 17 articles, the oldest written law of Japan. In 607 he sent a Japanese delegation headed by Ono no Imoko to China. He died in 622. His effigy appeared on the old bank notes of 10,000 yens and 5,000 yens.
alternative words: Yamatotakeru no mikoto, Yamatotakeru, Yamato takeru
keywords: famous person
related topics: Kofun period , Ezo , Kojiki , Nihonshoki , Yamato dynasty
related web sites: http://www.atsutajingu.or.jp , http://www2.begin.or.jp/sakura/miya04.htm , http://www2.plala.or.jp/cygnus/s4.html
explanation: A legendary Yamato prince in Kofun period. According to the ancient history books, he would have been sent by his father, Emperor Keiko, to the south Kyushu to subjugate Kumasho then to the eastern Japan to subjugate Ezo. During the second trip, he lost his wife "Princess Ototachibana" who sacrificed herself to save the prince's ship. Though his existence may be a subject of discussion, there is no doubt that Yamato dynasty had been busy to extend its territory around 4th century.
alternative words: Evfimii Putiatin, Evfimi Vasilievich Putiatin, Putyatin, Eufimij Putyatin
keywords: famous person, foreigner, military man, northern territory, russia
related topics: Edo shogunate , Commodore Perry , Sakoku , Shimoda treaty
related web sites: http://www.namahage.ne.jp/ebina/heda.htm , http://www.wbs.ne.jp/cmt/kankou/themapark/hakubutu/zusyu/zusyu.htm , http://www.izu.co.jp/~p-boo/russia.html
explanation: Russian admiral, born in 1803. After Americans had sent Perry to Japan to get access harbors, Putiatin arrived in Nagasaki in August 1853, accompanied by a writer, Goncharov. After a refusal of Edo shogunate to open harbors, he left Japan, then returned back in 1854 to Shimoda where Americans settled the first consulate. After a difficult negotiation with Kawaji Toshiakira, because his ship was wrecked by an earthquake, Shimoda treaty was concluded in February 1855. He died in 1883.
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