Online dictionary of history and traditions in Japan: Francisco de Xavier,Fudai,Fudoki,Fugu,Fujiwara family,Fujiwara no Fuhito,Fujiwara no Michinaga,Fujiwara no Sadaie,Fukuzawa Yukichi,Fusui

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Francisco de Xavier

hurannshisukozabieru zabieru
alternative words: Saint Francisco de Xavier, Francisco Xavier, Francis Xavier, Xavier
keywords: famous person, foreigner, religion
related topics: Sengoku period , Satsuma domain
related web sites: http://www.mg21.co.jp/xavier450/ , http://www.minc.ne.jp/hiwakisho/xavier/
explanation: Born in 1506 in a family of Spanish nobility. After studied at Paris university and founded Jesuits, he left Europe for missionary works in Asia: first south India then Malacca. There he met a Japanese, Anjiro and decided to go to Japan. In 1549, he reached Satsuma domain in south Kyushu and became the first Christian missionary. After having christianized the northern Kyushu with an aid of seignior Otomo Sorin, he left Japan for China and died there due to a fever in 1552.

Fudai

hudai hudaidaimyou
alternative words: Fudai daimyo
keywords: title, war lord
related topics: Daimyo , Edo period , Battle of Sekigahara , Koku , Tozama , Roju
explanation: Title given to daimyo during Edo period. They had allied to Tokugawa family before Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Being considered as reliable, only Fudai were allowed to participate to Edo shogunate's cabinet and occupied the important post such as Roju. The biggest Fudai was Ii family of Hikone with 350,000 koku but the most of them received less than 100,000 koku.

Fudoki

huudoki kohuudoki
alternative words: Fuudoki, Kofudoki, Ko-fudoki
keywords: book, mythology
related topics: Nihonshoki , Nara period , Izumo dynasty , Urashimataro
explanation: In 713, Empress Genmei ordered the governors of each province (about 60) to submit a report of geography, climate, local customs and products, oral traditions etc. in order to facilitate the tax collection and the compilation of forthcoming Nihonshoki. Though most of these documents dispersed (only Izumo province has fully survived), we can still glimpse at rich local folklore that the central government has rejected such as the tale of "Urashima taro" or legend of "Hagoromo".

Fugu

hugu hugu
alternative words: Globefish, Swellfish
keywords: food
related topics: Sashimi , Tofu
related web sites: http://www.fukurakusya.co.jp
explanation: Globefishes have been highly appreciated for long times in Asian countries, especially in Japan: a lack of grease in the fishes makes them really dainty. But be aware, the liver and the ovary being highly poisonous, you should eat only the dishes prepared by licensed persons. The most common dishes are Chirinabe (fillets are boiled in a pot with vegetable and tofu) and Sashimi (fishes are cut off into very thin fillets). Shimonoseki city in the extreme west of Hoshu is the best known place for fugu dishes.


Fujiwara family

hujiwarashi hujiwarake
alternative words: Fujiwara clan, Fujiwarashi, Fujiwara-shi, Fujiwara shi, Fujiwarake, Fujiwara-ke, Fujiwara ke, Fujiwara
keywords: family
related topics: Nakatomi no Kamatari , Fujiwara no Fuhito , Heian period , Rebellion of Fujiwara no Hirotsugu , Kanpaku
related web sites: http://www2.justnet.ne.jp/~jingu/keizu-sekkanke.htm , http://www.tk.airnet.ne.jp/ponta/history/hist12.html
explanation: Originated from Kamatari, the major contributor of Taika reform, the family became more powerful in the court thanks to not only the union with imperial family but clever descendants such as Fuhito who gave 4 main Fujiwara branches. During the reign of Michinaga in the middle Heian period, the family reached the apogee. Though declined thereafter, they continued to keep an honorific post because only the members of 5 sub branches (5 sekke) were allowed to become a regent.

Fujiwara no Fuhito

hujiwaranohuhito huhito
alternative words: Fujiwarano Fuhito
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Nakatomi no Kamatari , Heijokyo , Fujiwara family , Emperor Shomu
explanation: Born in 659 as a son of Kamatari, the major contributor of Taika reform. Being a clever politician as his father, his daughter became a wife of Shomu emperor and he strove for moving the capital to Nara in 710. He died in 720 and his 4 sons, Muchimaro, Fusasaki, Umakai and Maro became the founders of 4 main Fujiwara branches, i.e. respectively Nanke, Hokke, Shikike and Kyoke.

Fujiwara no Michinaga

hujiwaranomichinaga michinaga
alternative words: Fujiwarano Michinaga, Michinaga
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Fujiwara family , Heian period
related web sites: http://www.lint.ne.jp/~meirokun/mitinaM1.htm , http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ed3s-ymzk/zatu/zatu2.htm , http://www2u.biglobe.ne.jp/~heian/kenkyu/person/sekkan/sekkan8.htm
explanation: Born in 966 as the 4th son of the regent, Kaneie. Thanks to successive deaths of his elder brothers, he became suddenly one of pretenders of the house succession. After a fierce political battles with Korechika, a son of his eldest brother, he eliminated him and forced to accept his daughter, Shoshi as the second wife of Emperor Ichijo. He also let marry another daughter, Kenshi, with the next emperor, Sanjo. A famous poem compared his life to a full moon, i.e. nothing is lacking. He died in 1027.

Fujiwara no Sadaie

hujiwaranosadaie hujiwaranoteika
alternative words: Fujiwarano Sadaie, Fujiwara no Teika, Fujiwarano Teika
keywords: artist, famous person, poesy, writer
related topics: Heian period , Kamakura period , Shin kokinshu
related web sites: http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~sg2h-ymst/yamatouta/sennin/teika.html , http://www3.justnet.ne.jp/~mononoke/home.htm
explanation: Poet of the late Heian and early Kamakura period. Born in 1162 as a son of Fujiwara no Toshinari, another poet. Since he participated to an imperial poetry party at the age 17, his reputation had never ceased to spread and he was appointed by Gotoba joko to a compiler of "Shin kokinshu" in 1201. His style, "ushin", i.e. "aesthetic sensibility" had strongly influenced the poetry of the next generation. His diary, Meigetsuki is an excellent source to learn aristocrat's life of the epoch. He died in 1241.

Fukuzawa Yukichi

hukuzawayukichi
alternative words: Yukichi Fukuzawa
keywords: famous person, scholar
related topics: Rangaku , Meiji period , Edo , Edo shogunate
related web sites: http://www.yukichi.ne.jp/fukuzawa/yukichi.html , http://www.izumishobo.co.jp/iode31-1a.htm , http://www.keio.ac.jp
explanation: Born in 1834 in a samurai family of Kyushu. He studied Dutch (Rangaku) from Ogata Koan in Osaka. In 1858, he went to Edo to open a Dutch school then learnt alone English language. As a member of Edo shogunate's delegation, he visited 3 times America and Europe. In 1868, he opened a western school which became later Keio university. In spite of an invitation, he refused to enter Meiji government and his book, "Gakumon no susume" became a best seller. He died in 1901.

Fusui

huusui huusuigaku
alternative words: Feng shui, Fuusui, Fusuigaku, Fu sui
keywords: architecture, china, mystery, philosophy
related topics: Onmyodo , In-yo go-gyo setsu
related web sites: http://www2.odn.ne.jp/fengshui/index/ , http://www.mine.ne.jp/yasuyuki/fusui/ , http://www.jsdi.or.jp/~nao/ , http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~matchi/
explanation: Invented in China 3000 years ago as an art to choose the locality of a capital, it became soon an art to choose the locality of any buildings and their architecture. Fusui had known a tremendous development in China and other Asian nations by associating other Chinese sciences such as In-yo go-gyo setsu because Fusui was considered to influence human destiny. Recently Fusui has been recognized even by scientific community because of the importance of an environment on human behaviors.

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